لطفا به این شش دقیقه صوت گوش نموده و همزمان متن زیر را مرور نمایید ، هر بخش را که متوجه نشدید صورت را متوقف نموده و یا به عقب برگردانید
به خاطر داشته باشید این صوت مربوط به سطح متوسط می باشد و احتمالا برای سطح ابتدایی کمی دشوار است
Yvonne: Hello, this is ‘6 minute English’ – I’m Yvonne Archer…
Callum: And I’m Callum Robertson.
Yvonne: Hi Callum – and thanks for joining me! In today’s programme, we’ve got an
interesting case from Italy and it makes us think about the question of – well,
when as an adult, should you stop depending on your parents – financially?
Yvonne: But let me ask you this: when did you stop depending on your parents?
Callum: Well I suppose, financially, it would be when I got my first job and gradually
became less financially dependent. So I suppose, when I was about 19 – 20
when I could make my own way.
Yvonne: Well we’re going to hear more about that topic, obviously, but first, the big
question. Are you ready Callum?
Callum: Oh – yes, another one of your tricky questions.
Yvonne: Yes, but you usually get them right; let’s see how you do. A 12 year old boy in
the United States was the first to divorce his parents – but when did that
happen? Was it in
b) 1998 – or
Callum: Oh – now I remember this – I remember this, but, I can’t remember when it
was. I’m going to plump for 1998.
Yvonne: Good choice, but as usual we’ll have to wait until the end of the programme to
find out. Now today’s report – we’re going back to that question about adults
who are still financially dependent on their parents. As we listen to the report,
we’ll come across the term ‘expenses incurred’. Callum, can you explain that
for us please?
Callum: If you ‘incur expenses’ – you do something which costs money. So for example,
going to work usually incurs travel expenses – so that’s the price of your bus
fare, your petrol or your train ticket.
Yvonne: And what about the words ‘pursue’ and ‘aspirations’?
Callum: Well, if you ‘pursue an aspiration’ – you follow a dream to do something. So
for example, if you pursue an aspiration to be an English teacher – then you
work hard, you study and you train to become an English teacher.
Yvonne: Lovely. In today’s report from the BBC’s Emma Wallis, we hear about a court
case – a legal case. A man was taken to the highest court in Italy because he
didn’t want to ‘pay maintenance’ – to give money to support his twenty year old
son, David. As we listen, try to find out who wins the court case; is it David or
The court ruled that David, who still lives with his mother, should carry on receiving threehundred
euros a month from his separated father, as well as half of any extra expenses he
incurred. The reason; Italian law believes that ‘children’ have the right, even as adults, to
pursue their dreams and aspirations.
Yvonne: Callum, who won the court case – was it David or his father?
Callum: Well it was David who won the court case. The court ruled – or the court
ordered his father to continue paying David money so that he can pursue his
Yvonne: And the ruling came from the highest court in Italy, so David’s father will just
have to pay up! Now David is twenty years old. Is he too old to live with his
mum and get money from his dad as well? What do you think Callum?
Callum: I think it’s difficult – different countries have different cultures. So, ummm –
the court has ruled and I don’t have a better opinion than the court.
Yvonne: Now in the next part of Emma Wallis’ report, we’ll hear about David’s dreams
and aspirations are. But first, a little help with the language we’ll come across:
Callum, what does ‘to quit a job’ mean?
Callum: Oh, if you leave your job you ‘quit’ your job. You don’t want to do it any more
– you quit.
Yvonne: And what about ‘to set a precedent’?
Callum: Oh, that’s a legal term – ‘to set a precedent’. It’s when a law is given for the first
time and from then on, in future cases, it can be referred to. They can say, well
this happened in this case, so we can use that same law in this case.
Yvonne: Okay – here’s Emma Wallis again…
David’s mother said that David had quit his job to enrol on a course, training to become a
hairdresser. Until he’s able to maintain himself economically, David’s father, according to the
court, which has set a precedent for all future cases, will have to keep David in the manner to
which he’s become accustomed.
Yvonne: So David’s left his job to learn how to become a hairdresser. And while he’s
training, he wants money from his father so that he won’t have to change the
way he’s always lived. And the phrase we heard there was?
Callum: The money is needed ‘to keep David in the manner to which he’s become
accustomed’ – to continue with the way of life he’s now used to.
Yvonne: Right and so David’s a lucky man really, isn’t he? But do you think that we’re
always children in the eyes of our parents?
Callum: Oh yes, absolutely. I don’t think it matters. However old you are, you are still
your parents’ child. Yes, absolutely.
Yvonne: Now Callum – today’s big question was: a 12 year old boy in the United States
was the first to divorce his parents – but when did that happen? And you
Yvonne: Ah – you’re right… no, you’re wrong. It was 1992 –
Callum: Ah – that long ago?
Yvonne: It was. And it was a young boy who actually terminated his mother’s rights to
him so she couldn’t visit with him – she didn’t have any legal rights over him
any more. And that was way back in 1992.
Callum: Oh, what a sad case.
Yvonne: Quite sad indeed. But that’s all we’ve got time for today! Do join us again next
time for more ‘6 Minute English’ from BBC Learning English.