لطفا به این شش دقیقه صوت گوش نموده و همزمان متن زیر را مرور نمایید ، هر بخش را که متوجه نشدید صورت را متوقف نموده و یا به عقب برگردانید
به خاطر داشته باشید این صوت مربوط به سطح متوسط می باشد و احتمالا برای سطح ابتدایی کمی دشوار است
Callum: Hello I’m Callum Robertson and with me today for 6 Minute English is Jackie
Dalton – hello Jackie.
Jackie: Hello Callum.
Callum: Today we’re going to be looking at the topic of the cost of living. What do we
mean by that expression, the cost of living?
Jackie: We use it to talk about our everyday expenditure, so what it costs us to live our
day to day lives, the cost of food, accommodation, fuel and so on.
Callum: Do you have any idea what you spend on these things do you know how much
it costs to live Jackie Dalton’s life?
Jackie: I have no idea whatsoever actually! I just shut my eyes and hand over my
credit card and hope for the best. How about you Callum?
Callum: Well yes, I figure out my monthly expenses and when I get paid I put that
money into a bank account and that’s only used for those regular bills. Any
money I have left over goes towards savings or the occasional luxury.
Jackie: Well that sounds very organised, Callum!
Callum: I suppose it is really. But if I didn’t budget like that I think I’d end up spending
all my money each month. Now you’ll notice I used the verb to budget there –
could you tell us a bit more about this word Jackie?
Jackie: Yes, ‘to budget’ means to plan your finances in the way you described, so that
you know you can afford the necessities. There is also a noun, ‘a budget’, you
can talk about your weekly or monthly budget, which is the amount of money
you set aside to spend on particular things.
Callum: So, for example, I have a monthly food budget. How about you Jackie? Now
we’re talking about this today because there was a recent report which set out
how much, in terms of money, was the minimum that someone needed to earn
each year to have an acceptable standard of living.
And that’s my question for you today Jackie. According to this report, which
we’ll hear more of in a minute, how much do you think was suggested as being
the minimum amount a single man needs for an acceptable standard of life in
a) £۱۱,۲۰۰ (about US$22,400)
b) £۱۳,۴۰۰ (about US$26,800), or
c) £۱۵,۶۰۰ (about US$31,200)
Jackie: Well I think life in the UK has got quite expensive so I’m going to go for the
highest figure, £۱۵,۶۰۰.
Callum: OK, we’ll see if you’re right at the end of the programme.
This research was carried out by an organisation called the Joseph Roundtree
Foundation. Here’s their policy advisor, Donald Hirsch describing the project.
This was very detailed research in which a number of groups of ordinary people had long
discussions about what really needs to go into a household budget to achieve a minimum
acceptable standard of living and they thought long and hard about what things are sort of
luxuries, what things we might want and what things people really would need to have and
this includes not just basics like food and shelter but also things which allow people to
participate in society.
Callum: So they wanted to find out not how much was the absolute minimum you could
live on, but how much you needed to be able to afford to live and also be
involved in a social life.
Jackie: They examined a wide range of possible expenditures in everyday life and
decided whether each item or service was essential or a luxury.
Callum: It was done by groups of ordinary people who thought “long and hard” about
household budgets. Jackie, to think long and hard about something…
Jackie: Yes, this is a good expression and it’s fairly simple to understand, to think long
and hard about something means to think very carefully about it. What’s
important to remember with this phrase is that it is a fixed expression, so you
think long and hard about something. You can’t say ‘to think hard and long’
about something, that sounds funny.
Callum: Now we’ve just got time to have a look at some of the items they discussed,
these groups, about whether they were essential or not essential for everyday
life. How about, what do you think they though about mobile phones?
Jackie: I would like to think they’re not essential for everyday life.
Callum: Could you live without yours?
Callum: Yes, it was, mobiles phones were regarded as being something that was
essential for everyday life. Television and a DVD player?
Jackie: I would say ‘yes’ if you want to in tune with what’s going on in your culture.
They are useful to have.
Callum: Absolutely, yes, that was a thought, that everybody, you know, needed to have
a television and a DVD player these days. Access to the internet?
Jackie: Yes, I would say so, that’s as important as having a television.
Callum: Well they said no, this survey, they said no at home, because people can still
access the internet if they want to an internet café or at a library for free, in
many cases. And what about a holiday, having a holiday?
Jackie: Oh, they’re essential, but it’s probably a luxury isn’t it.
Callum: Well it was regarded as being essential, one week budget holiday in the United
Kingdom each year was something that was regarded as being essential.
Well that is just about all the time we have for today. Before we go, the answer
to the question. How much money is needed to pay for all these essential things
and it was £۱۳,۴۰۰
Now you said £۱۵,۶۰۰ Jackie, not as much as that, so but unfortunately you go
the answer wrong – again! Well never mind about that. Join us again for more
۶ Minute English soon. Goodbye